One Health is a concept that describes how the health of humans is closely linked to animals and environment. Due to the continuous change in many artificial and natural factors that affects the interactions between people, animal and environments, a tendency of increasing the opportunities of emerging diseases between animal and human beings has been observed. Therefore, one health solution for various issues is becoming more important to develop to prevent disease outbreak from interspecies transmission or to break the chain of disease transmission between humans and animals. This approach, not new, but requires an effort of holistic and systematic collaboration and engagement by integrating multidisciplinary experts from academic, industry and government.
There are three “one health” issues that are related to agriculture and are becoming domestic and global challenges; antimicrobial resistance (AMR), emerging pathogens, and food safety. Each of them is connected to each other and requires a committed strategy and intensive teamwork. It has been well known that more than half of infectious diseases identified in humans are zoonotic, meaning that they originate from animals such as salmonellosis, rabies, West Nile virus, plague, emerging coronaviruses, avian flu, which makes a One Health approach critically important. In recent years, agricultural industries have been engaging in One Health policy. However, solving these complicated issues via research and workshop training frequently without the passionate participation of modern animal agriculture industries leads to a likely unsuccessful outcome. In Animal production industry, their production scale is expanding as the demands on the meats is increasing. It is becoming more challenging and important on how to come up with a tactic to win animal agriculture’s commitment into One Health solution for successful health problem-solving. With the enthusiastic involvement of animal agricultural industry, One Health’s approach to control these aforementioned concerns would be advancing to a likely successful route.
Current biotechnology development may contribute some solutions to be part of one health scope. For example, multiple feed additives have been developed to be able to modify the condition of gut, such as probiotics, prebiotics, and enzymes. Probiotics, also known as Direct Fed Microbials (DFMs) are bacteria known to be beneficial to the body that are supplemented orally to the animal. Probiotic supplements modulate the overall population of beneficial gut bacteria by competitive exclusion and/or inhibition by producing antimicrobial peptides promoting a healthy balance in the GI tract. Certain probiotics also produce energy and improve immune response. DFMs moderate the animal’s immune system and protect against intestinal and environmental pathogens. On the other hand, prebiotics are compounds such as short chain xylooligosaccharides (XOS) that promotes the growth and/or activity of beneficial microorganisms in the gut. The combined effect of prebiotic and probiotic working synergistically is called the Synbiotic effect. GH11 xylanases break down both soluble and insoluble xylans efficiently and creates the prebiotic effect by breaking the xylans into xylooligosaccharides which can be utilized by beneficial bacteria in the GI tract. The Probiotics such as Bacillus spp have many functions including promoting gut health by competitive exclusion, improving gut health through the production of beneficial metabolites via alterations in the gut microbiota, and stimulating the intestinal immune system by increasing the levels of cytokines and chemokines in the animal gut.
At BRI, we refer to the combined beneficial effect resulting from (1) Xylanase enzyme, (2) prebiotics produced by the action of the enzyme, and (3) the probiotics (or DFMs) to produce a healthy gut environment, supporting and promoting the survival and activity of beneficial gut microflora as the Zymbiotic effect, which play a role as a gut modulator. It shows a consistent reduction in intestinal pathogenic load, reducing disease risk and performance loss caused by detrimental pathogens such as E. coli, Salmonella, Eimeria, and Clostridium perfringens. Creating an optimal environment for gut microbiota, promoting better gastrointestinal fitness, and improving immune response ultimately help animals achieve greater performance and growth. By implementation of above-mentioned solutions, the antibiotics usage in animals can be significantly reduced as well as the pathogen load in the environment, therefore, eliminating the potential zoonosis risk.
Global food safety and security faces numerous challenges as the human population continues to grow. To accomplish a successful One Health, agriculture industries, researchers, government agencies, and consumers must commit and engage in food safety policies and sustainable food and animal production practices. In addition, sharing research data and using modern technology by combining multiple disciplinary sectors will be the challenges that are required to overcome. Zoonotic infections continue to create a health burden worldwide, and new disease can emerge in any country and spread globally, the regional and global adoption of the One Health solution is a key to reduce this ongoing potential outbreaks. A Successful outcome of one health will require the strategic planning and collaboration geographically and globally among professionals in human, animal health, and environmentalists.